Friday, October 30, 2015

ADIEU

No. 21: ADIEU, for woodwind quintet (flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon), 1966 [16:13]

Development
     This work for small wind ensemble is an intense yet playful study of static textures, bursts of color, and sudden cadences, and is dedicated to Wolfgang Sebastian Meyer, son of Stockhausen's oboist friend, Wilhelm Meyer.  Sadly, the younger Meyer, an organist, had just a few months previously died in a tragic car accident.  The initial commission came from the father (who had previously performed in ZEITMAßE), but at that time Stockhausen was deeply involved in the 2-year realization of HYMNEN, and so did not think he could devote the appropriate amount of time it would demand.  However, after viewing an exhibit of Piet Mondrian's stark, simply-painted works, he agreed to the commission and completed it in 2 days, basing it's notation on more aleatoric ("free") and verbally-described elements.

Form Structure
     ADIEU is organized into 8 main sections (proportionately drawn in the graphic at top), separated by either a very brief, pleasantly-tonal "cadence phrase" (short tutti motif) or a silent pause.  Each of these sections is made of 1 to 8 "Moments" (measures), and each Moment/measure is based on a different ensemble chord harmony and articulation combination.  However, all of the Moments grouped in one of the 8 main sections usually have a common feature, or convey some kind of through-line development.

     The durations of the sections and Moments are derived from the Fibonacci series, a favorite Stockhausen compositional tool (also used in the previous TELEMUSIK).  Additionally, each musical characteristic (such as "trills") was assigned a Fibonacci number, and when Stockhausen formed the Moments, he mapped articulations onto the Moments with matching Fibonacci durations.  Combinations of articulations were created by grouping and sub-grouping the durations to get different Fibonacci numbers (see Wiki entry for more on this compositional process).
 
     Because of this compositional technique, the Moments all have different combinations of textures, including microtonal tutti chords, polyphonically-layered chords, chords with tones shared among the 5 instruments, glissandi masses, chords with mixed articulation (legato, staccato, flutter-tongue, trilled, sung, etc...), sub-grouped chord intervals, etc...  Dynamically, the entire work is quiet and soft except for a fade and swell (> <) in the middle of the work (from Moment 22 (falling tutti gliss) to 25).

The 8 main sections can be summarized as follows:
  1. Cadence phrase, then a long introductory section of sustained microtonal bending tones, adding tremoli (flutter-tongue) at the end.
  2. Cadence, then "pulsed" note figures (clarinet and oboe duo against flute, horn, bassoon trio), followed by semi-rhythmic tutti accents, and ending in independent bursts.
  3. Pause, then held notes with subtle bends and "beating", ending with polyphonic tremoli.
  4. Cadence, then a long section featuring groups of close pitches (some beating), framed by brass outbursts at the beginning and end.
  5. Cadence, then rhythmic "bursts" of notes in rapid harmony changes.
  6. Pause, then irregular accents and trills in rapid harmony changes (at first duo vs. trio, and then after a big falling scale/glissando, independently).
  7. Pause, then tutti accents, various tempi, sometimes syncopated.
  8. Pause, then a gradual return to long held tones, becoming synchronous, and finally ending in a final Cadence/Coda.
     A more detailed description is below.  The sections are separated into 8 tracks on Stockhausen Edition CD 4 and the "Time" column shows where each individual Moment begins.  The blue-ish areas below indicate more static textures, and the red indicate more active areas.

Trk Section
(Dur)
Time Moment Tempo/Note lengths Rhythm Individual/
Ensemble
Articulation
23 [1]

(3:46)
0:07 CADENCE I: 4 notes
1 very long to 
long held notes
irregular individual glissandi
2:22 2 extra notes, flutter-tongue
24 [2]

(1:40)
0:00 CADENCE II: 3 notes
3 moderate length notes periodic 2 independent groups gliss, swells, humming
0:16 4 gliss, swells, trills
0:39 5 long notes irregular unison rhythmic staccato swells
1:10 6 moderate and long notes polyrhythmic individual gliss, points, trills
1:31 PAUSE
25 [3]

(2:16)
0:01 7 long notes mixed unison, but with
aleatoric note rotation
gliss (beating)
1:25 8 fast and slow tremoli syncopated
repetition
individual gliss, legato
26 [4]

(3:46)
0:00 CADENCE III: 6 notes
9 short and long tones irregular individual spread groups of close pitches (dissonance, beating), begins and ends with brass outbursts
27 [5]

(1:00)
0:00 CADENCE IV: 3 notes
10 short bursts,
changing density
periodic unison trills, flutter-tongue, points, staccato, extra notes
0:05 11 activity slowing down
0:09 12 syncopated
repetition
individual same but with group swell-fade <>
0:16 13 free 2nd group swell-fade <>
0:21 14 periodic portato, humming,  flutter-tongue, trills, swelled notes, extra notes

0:26 15
0:35 16 bursts, more isolated unison
0:44 17 irregular unison
0:54 PAUSE
28 [6]

(0:41)
0:00 18 mostly
fast and lively
irregular 2 groups grace notes, accents,
humming, flutter-tongue, trills, extra notes

0:05 19
0:08 20
0:13 21
0:20 22 unison big falling gliss with
trill, flutter-tongue
0:22 23 individual staccato/legato, grace notes, accents, flutter-tongue, extra notes, dimin. and then crescendo
0:24 24
0:28 25
0:33 PAUSE
29 [7]

(0:59)
0:01 26 fast accents irregular unison gliss, points,
some trills, flutter-tongue
0:05 27 slower accents
0:20 28 mixed speeds polyrhythmic individual swelling rhythm, port.,
humming
0:34 29 short bursts swelling rhythm, port., trills
0:55 PAUSE
30 [8]

(2:06)
0:00 30 moderate tempo,
decreasing speed
irregular individual swelled notes with pauses in between, note rotation, gliss
0:33 31 long tones regular semi-unison extra notes, gliss, ad lib pauses
1:35 CADENCE V: 2 + 2 notes


Score
from Stockhausen Edition CD 4 booklet
(©www.karlheinzstockhausen.org)
     One of the most interesting things about ADIEU is that the score partly uses "aleatoric" (free, indeterminate) notation, giving the performers a relatively wide choice in how to interpret the score, but still resulting in a consistent texture from performance to performance.  For example, in Moment 18 (1st column, shown above), each instrument has a starting note, and then 2 additional notes (in parentheses) to choose from.  There are still actually only 5 unique pitches in this Moment, but in many situations like this, they can be circulated among the players or used to create interesting color combinations.

     The notated material in the bottom section is a notated "example" of how the irregular rhythm and note assignments of this Moment could be performed (preferably prepared beforehand, though I suppose it could also be cued by conductor).  The brackets indicate that in these 4 Moments, an oboe and bassoon duo play against a trio of flute, clarinet and horn.

     (In a similar work of this type, STOP, Stockhausen eventually notated out all of the indeterminate elements in a published "worked out version", though this was never really done for ADIEU).

Sound Impressions
     This is a beautiful chamber work with a very delightful "vibe" to it, despite the fact that it's a "farewell".  Some of the held textures remind me of held organ mixtures, which may be in honor of the dedicatee's instrument.  The pauses may be felt as interruptions of life, or perhaps as "moments of silence".  Stockhausen notes: "The musicians must be able to experience deeply, and form into notes, the sense of closeness to death that vibrates in this music."  However, the tonal cadence phrases provide a festive counterpoint, and the more lively sections throb with energy.  Compositionally, the blending of systematic Fibonacci-based mathematics and "free-choice" aleatoric notation makes this piece very balanced, yet open to repeated reinvention.

Links
Sound samples, tracks listings and CD ordering
Buy the Score
ADIEU Wiki
Works of Karlheinz Stockhausen (Maconie)
Compositional techniques in the music of Stockhausen (1951-1970) (Kelsall, 1975)

Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Early Wks: SONATINE, FORMEL, SPIEL

FORMEL Score Cover
(showing the first 4 formula segments marked out
on the first score page)
(©www.karlheinzstockhausen.org)
SPIEL Score Cover
(showing the duration scale and the rising migration of the pitch row for the 2nd layer of the 2nd movement)
(©www.karlheinzstockhausen.org)

Nr. 1/8 SONATINE (SONATINA) for violin and piano, 1951 [10'32"]
Nr. 1/6 FORMEL (FORMULA) for orchestra including piano, vibraphone and harp, 1951 [12'57"]
Nr. 1/4 SPIEL (PLAY) for orchestra, 1952 [16'01"]

Introduction
     These 3 works are all "student works", though Stockhausen did perform SONATINE live on the radio, and the other works were intended for submission to publishers or music festivals.  The orchestral work FORMEL was written right after KREUZSPIEL was completed (in the free hours Stockhausen had when not playing piano accompaniment on tours with the magician Adriano (Adrion)).  SPIEL's two movements were originally the second and third parts of FORMEL (originally titled, "Studie für Orchester"), but since their style was much closer to "point music" than the first movement's theme-based "formula" style, Stockhausen split it off into a separate work.  SPIEL was premiered (with Stockhausen on the piano part) in a slightly edited form at the 1952 Donaueschinger Musiktage festival, along with works by Paul Hindemith, Bernd Alois Zimmerman, Igor Stravinsky and others.
From DG LP back
(©www.karlheinzstockhausen.org.)

SONATINE (SONATINA) for violin and piano 
1951 [10'32"]
     This work was one of Stockhausen's last student "assignment" works, and was premiered in 1951 on Cologne Radio (with Stockhausen playing the piano part).  The 3 layers (violin, left and right piano hands) of all 3 movements are all based on one 12-note pitch sequence (row) in which none of the 12 notes repeat.  This sequence can be used in backwards (retrograde) order or upside-down (inversion) form (these are, of course, examples of Arnold Schönberg's serial "12-tone technique").

     As seen in the sketch above of the beginning of SONATINE, the middle staff (piano right hand) has the 12 note "basic" row labeled from 1 to 12.  In the top staff (violin) the 12 note row is inverted (labelled with upside-down numbers).  The 3rd staff (left hand piano) has the 12 note in retrograde (backwards) order.  Stockhausen mentions that the durations and dynamics of the notes are also organized from a single row, but this is not really apparent in the example above (in KREUZSPIEL this aspect would become much easier to detect).  Here, the durations can be heard more as rhythmic motifs.  In "The Works of Karlheinz Stockhausen", Robin Maconie also characterizes these 3 movements as 3 contrasting Bartokian/Hindemith-like studies of "couple relationship" (male and female).  The timings below are from the recording on Stockhausen Edition CD 1 (featuring Saschko Gawriloff and Aloys Kontarsky on violin and piano respectively).
  1. Lento expressivo: Basically polyphonic (as seen in the sketch above).  It has a few tempo changes, but is generally lyrical/rhapsodic.  The 3 forms of the 12-note pitch row bounce around the 3 voices (sometimes with "echoes" and "pre-echoes", as seen above in the 1st staff's 3rd measure and 2nd staff 's 4th measure), and since the melody is expressed in different rhythms, the layers quickly go out of sync.  This sometimes results in a canon-like effect.
    • 0:05: Piano trill begins the 3 layers (as seen in sketch above)
    • 0:32: Tempo becomes more lively
    • 0:39: Bass line surfaces, texture becomes a long piano trill
    • 0:57: Rhapsodic violin over agitated piano, gradually meeting in texture 
    • 1:28: Violin starts basic row again
  2. Molto moderato: Homophonic with the violin floating above and away from a "slow boogie woogie" bass pattern in the left hand piano part.  Often times the violin and the piano right hand layers alternate single melodic lines with chordal harmony lines.  Maconie notes that the movement ends by layering the violin's 6-beats/bar on top of the piano's 4 beats/bar. 
    • 0:00: Boogie-woogie piano bass line begins
    • 0:10: Violin enters
    • 0:18: Piano melody enters
    • 0:53: Piano melody becomes chordal
    • 1:53: Violin becomes chordal, piano melody thins again
    • 2:26: Violin returns to single notes after a brief soloistic figure, piano becomes chordal again, etc...
  3. Allegro scherzando: This movement is probably the most humorous and "dance-like", and has a strong feeling of characters in dialogue (Maconie notes that it consists mainly of stacked (poly)chords, ending in the movement's basic 3-note triad motif).
    • 0:00: Sharp piano motifs separated by sustained violin lines
    • 0:33: Dance-like violin over march piano
    • 1:18: High, closely-voiced (dissonant) piano chords with rhapsodic violin on top
    • 2:01: A somewhat "wry" piano solo, leading into a dialogue with the violin
    • 2:44: March-dance duet returns
    • 3:09: Tentative dialogue with previous motifs, some boogie-woogie piano returns
    • 3:33: Build-up to final march-dance coda
A performance by Jörg und Heinz Lengersdorf:
  
FORMEL (FORMULA) for orchestra including piano, vibraphone and harp
1951 [12'57"]
      FORMEL (premiered belatedly in 1971) was written after KREUZSPIEL, but unlike the "point music" aspect of that work, FORMEL employs a process of growth and transformation on an initial "12-segment" melodic formula (or an "initial gestalt").

The Formula
     Each of the formula's 12 segments has 1 to 12 unique pitches (see below), and the higher the number of pitches, the smaller the subdivisions given to each note (from 12 16th notes down to 1).  Melodically, the composition is based on a 12-note row, but the row is basically transformed as groups of motifs, rather than on a note level (such as in KREUZSPIEL and the first version of PUNKTE).
The 12 Formula segments (from Bennett Lin's "Serialism in Stockhausen's FORMEL").
The orchestration of the first 4 segments can be seen on the score cover shown at top of this page.
The full score wrap-around cover and CD booklet show the orchestration for all 12 segments.
      Robin Maconie describes FORMEL's harmonic aspect as being based on 12 segments which (in its "initial gestalt") progress from having 12 single 16th notes to 11 dyads (with the length of 2 16th notes), to 10 triads (of 3 16th notes length), etc...ending with 1 12-note chord of 12 16th notes' length (the number of notes in each chord type is matched to the number of notes in the melodic fragment of each segment).

     The vibraphone plays the melody of the 12 formula segments in the beginning.  Afterwards the melody is passed around (see "Form Structure" below).  Some of the other identifying timbral features for the 12 segments in this first section are noted below, but again, these are different each time the segment reappears during the remainder of the piece.  The timings below are from the recording on Stockhausen Edition CD 2 (featuring the SWR Radio Orchestra conducted by Stockhausen).
  1. 0:05 (harp, cello)
  2. 0:08 (oboe, celesta, piano)
  3. 0:12 (pizz strings enter)
  4. 0:18 (violin solo)
  5. 0:24 (melodic trill figure)
  6. 0:30 (vibr, cel., piano)
  7. 0:37 (pizz strings return)
  8. 0:47 (vln & vibr. duo)
  9. 0:55 (low pizz accents in rhythm)
  10. 1:01 (clarinets)
  11. 1:06 (bassoon)
  12. 1:10 (vibraphone scale, basically a 12-tone chord)
    Form Structure (Formula Transformation)
    The sequence and instrumentation of each occurrence of a formula segment
    (image from Bennett Lin's "Serialism in Stockhausen's FORMEL".  Click to enlarge.)
         The 12 melodic fragments occur in different permutations for the remainder of the piece (ie - the formula segments continue after the first 12 with 1, 2, 1, 3, 1, 4, 3, 2, 1, 5, etc...).  This can be seen in Bennett Lin's excellent chart above (the black squares show which instruments are playing the main formula melody as well).  Also, after the initial sequence, each basic fragment appears once as a solo in the 4th octave, and is afterwards transposed for each re-occurrence, always moving to the outer extremes.  In other words, the pitch range spreads out from the middle and migrates out to the upper and lower registers (leaving the middle register empty).  Some of the formula segments sound a little bit alike, since a few basic motivic figures (such as the up-down-up-down shape) appear more than once.  This helps make the piece a little bit "mantra-like", perhaps.  In any case, see Lin's thesis (link at bottom) for more information.

    SPIEL (PLAY) for orchestra
    1952 [16'01"]
    (Evergreen Game, a famous chess match from 1852)
          SPIEL was Stockhausen's very first commission (for the Donaueschinger Musiktage Festival), based on interest generated by KREUZSPIEL. As mentioned previously, it was originally the back half of FORMEL, but since it's "point music" texture was so different from that work, it was separated out. One of its original percussion instruments is a drinking glass, which promptly shattered on its final downbeat at Donaueschinger (Stockhausen: "provoking one of those legendary scandals which my early compositions usually evoked.").   The performance was still a success, however, in that it won Stockhausen the attention of the music publisher Universal Edition, which soon started publishing his scores. The reason behind the title "Play" (or "Game") may be because of the almost "turn-based" entries of the notes of the orchestra groups, as if they were playing a game of chess between them. 

          The 1st Movement begins with single note "points" being passed around among the various instrument groups, while the piano and celesta provide somewhat irregular but subtle background accents.  During this movement the points gradually expand into melodic fragments, and a percussion climax occurs in the middle.  The work PUNKTE would explore the "point" technique much further.  Wikipedia notes that the 1st movement is in 7 sections led by the vibraphone, but frankly it's a bit hard to hear this division (I think it may be tempo or dynamics-based?).  My timings below are from the recording on Stockhausen Edition CD 2 (featuring the SWR Radio Orchestra conducted by Stockhausen).
    • 0:05: Entrance swell and introduction
    • 0:14: Isolated single notes ("points") from various instruments
    • 0:40: 2-note fragments begin in low strings, and soon appear in other groups as well
    • 2:02: Climactic middle section featuring percussion begins
    • 2:20: After the percussion dies down, notes become longer (sustained) and more melodic "trains" appear
    Some of the more "exotic" percussion instruments in SPIEL: Indian bell, cinelli, Japanese woodblock, African pod rattle
    (from score ©www.karlheinzstockhausen.org.)
         In the slower 2nd Movement, the un-pitched percussion is a bit more present throughout.  The notes, durations and dynamics are still organized serially, but because of a 4-layered polyphony the notes do not appear so much as isolated colors (such as in the beginning of the 1st movement).  These polyphonic layers (each with its own "scale of durations") are each made of a pair of pitched and un-pitched instruments as listed below:
    1. Glockenspiel & Cinelli (small cymbals) (with bowed strings as a supporting color)
    2. Piano (left hand) & Drums (with electric organ and string accents as supporting colors) (sketch shown on score cover at top of this page)
    3. Piano (right hand) & Cymbals (with pizzicato strings as a supporting color)
    4. Vibraphone & Hi-Hat (with winds as a supporting color)
         Each layer gradually spreads out from its starting octave range (also seen on the score cover shown at the top of this page) . This movement originally had the notorious shattered goblet at bar 56, but which now uses a triangle/cymbal instead.  Shortly after this midpoint signal, the work proceeds in a reversal of the first part (from the 5:26 mark, in a palindromic mirror form).  Maconie describes this movement as a journey from amorphous resonances into distinct sustained pitches, and then a backwards return after the wine glass/triangle hit.
    Sound Impressions
          These works briefly trace Stockhausen's development from a student writing classroom exercises (thinking more about poetry than music, actually) to a soon-to-be-published mature composer receiving commissions for major music festivals.   Beyond their historical importance, they are all actually pretty enjoyable to hear! In fact, I think they come across as being fairly forward-thinking even in today's musical climate... 
         SONATINE has a very chromatic basic language, but it also has a clear dramatic form which keeps it interesting and easy to follow.  Interestingly, the idea of "echo" and "pre-echo" occurring here would reappear many times in the future, and is even one of the main "accessories" of the LICHT formulas.  FORMEL may be one of the most "hypnotic" of Stockhausen's serial works, in my opinion. The blending of "formula technique" with serial permutations makes it extremely accessible, and the melodic shapes of the formula are almost "singable". When Stockhausen composed MANTRA, he had actually forgotten about FORMEL, but, in fact, FORMEL has many elements which foreshadow the "formula technique" he would use for much of the latter part of his career.  SPIEL is probably most interesting to me as a possible "stand-in" for the "withdrawn" version of PUNKTE. PUNKTE was revised drastically in 1962, removing much of its actual "point" aspect, so SPIEL may be the closest thing to experiencing that unrecorded version.  Also, despite its serial nature, the formula used in SPIEL becomes much more obvious after a few listens.

          As a side note, it's somewhat ironic to me that, in the early works, the titles of some works sometimes seem to be better-suited to the work just previous.  For example "Points" describes SPIEL's note distribution somewhat, "Counter-Points" describes PUNKTE's eventual fate, and "Groups" describes KONTRA-PUNKTE's "point-clumping" in some ways... 

    Links
    SONATINE Sound samples and CD ordering
    SONATINE Wiki Entry
    FORMEL and SPIEL Sound samples and CD ordering
    FORMEL Wiki
    SPIEL Wiki
    Purchase the Scores
    Stockhausen Notes on SPIEL
    The Works of Karlheinz Stockhausen (Robin Maconie)
    "Serialism in Stockhausen's FORMEL", Bennett Lin, 2011 (PDF)
    Sonoloco Review  

    Thursday, October 15, 2015

    HARLEKIN

    HARLEKIN Score cover
    (Suzanne Stephens, costume by Stockhausen)
    DER KLEINE HARLEKIN Score cover
    (Suzanne Stephens, costume by Mary Bauermeister)

    No. 42: HARLEKIN (Harlequin) for clarinet, 1975 [45']
    No. 42 1/2 (42.2) - DER KLEINE HARLEKIN (The Little Harlequin) for clarinet, 1975 [9']

         HARLEKIN is a work for a costumed solo clarinetist with a substantial element of performer movement in its score (dance and mime experience is preferred).  During this 45-minute solo, the performer takes on 7 "roles", such as "Enchanted Dream Messenger", "Playful Constructor", "Enamoured Lyric", "Pedantic Teacher", etc...  As each role surfaces, the HARLEKIN melody progressively reveals itself until it is fully stated in the "Enamoured Lyric".  Later on, the movement aspects begin to overwhelm the melody itself (percussive noises from the dance movements are an integral part of the composition, and if dancing is not possible, then an accompanying percussionist can be utilized).  Like MANTRA and INORI, the music is developed from a melodic "formula", which includes organized pitches, durations, dynamics and articulations.  This work was dedicated to and premiered by Suzanne Stephens in 1976 (recorded 1978).

    Suzanne Stephens (HARLEKIN)
    (photos ©www.karlheinzstockhausen.org.)

    HARLEKIN Formula
    (colored score extract ©www.karlheinzstockhausen.org.)
         The HARLEKIN formula has a total of 27 notes grouped into 6 sections (5-7-6-2-3-4 notes, separated by small rests) and using 11 unique pitches.  It gets transposed to various pitch centers throughout the work.  The theme doesn't fully appear until a few minutes into the work.  Instead, HARLEKIN starts by expanding from a trill into expanding melody loops in the high register, and then slowly adding duration values to parts of the loops while working itself down into the middle register.  After the melody is patiently stated in the low register, it goes through a few more theatrical "roles" before ascending back up into the heights into another trill and then disappearing.

    Form Structure and Narrative
    Form structure derived from Stockhausen's original sketch
    (from Marczak's "Theatrical Elements and their Relationship with Music in Karlheinz Stockhausen's HARLEKIN for Clarinet".
         HARLEKIN is divided into 7 main "character-based" sections.  The general form of the entire work can be characterized as an inverted arch, with a falling and then rising trajectory of pitch register, tempo and density.  The pitch range, in contrast, has a mirror arc: small, then large, then small again (much of the analysis in this post is derived from Katarzyna Marczak's excellent and exhaustive thesis, "Theatrical Elements and their Relationship with Music in Karlheinz Stockhausen's HARLEKIN for Clarinet" - see link at bottom.).  In the descriptions below, the timings come from Suzanne Stephens' premiere recording on Stockhausen Edition CD 25.

    1. Der Traumbote (The Dream Messenger)
    Merve Kazokoğlu (DER KLEINE HARLEKIN)
    "...dancing circles...a descending spiral..."

    MOVEMENT: During this beginning section, the performer moves in a turning, shrinking, spiral path, ending at the front of the stage, and then physically interprets the music with eyes closed - "enchanted".

         The clarinet fades in on a circular breathing trill of the first 2 notes of the 27-note HARLEKIN formula.  It proceeds to play even rhythmic loops (2-5 cycles each) using the first 3 formula notes, then the first 4 notes, 5 notes, etc..., each time adding another note from the formula, until eventually the full 27 formula notes are included in the loops (the loops often end with rising chromatic tails).  After this follow 10 more cycles (see timing below), where the formula notes gradually "grow" into their proper durations, causing "interruptions".  In other words, 10 slowly shrinking loops are interrupted by short, expanding fragments of the formula (each time starting from the formula beginning), until in an 11th iteration the entire formula is revealed with proper pitches, durations, and dynamics.  After a brief staccato figure, it goes directly into the next section.
    • 1:45 - 1st 4 note loop appears out of trill
    • 3:44 - Formula note durations are added starting from 1st note
    • 5:22 - Final complete formula, staccato figure

    2. Der spielerische Konstrukteur (The Playful Constructor)
    "...the melody now formed, stretches down low and pulls itself together, slower, clearer."

    MOVEMENT: At the front of the stage, HARLEKIN is now wide-awake and interprets the musical figures with frozen poses, jerky marionette-like movements, etc...

         During this section, the formula is traversed 10 times (each cycle separated by cadential rests), and each time fragmented by unpredictable rests.  More importantly, starting from the 2nd cycle (at 0:15), individual notes of the formula are gradually shifted down to lower octaves.  Additional rhythmic variation and ornamentation is added as the cycles gradually slow down in tempo.
    • Cycles at: 0:15, 0:42, 1:09, 1:51, 2:29, 3:16, 3:42, 4:18, 4:56, 5:40, and 6:07.

    3. Der verliebter Lyrikyer (The Enamoured Lyric)
    Katarzyna Marczaku (HARLEKIN)
    "...those who listen very quietly will be able to sing this melody eternally in their dreams..."

    MOVEMENT: This section is played without much movement, while staring into the void.
    The second formula cycle is played on the knees.

         After all of the pitches of the formula have been shifted down to a lower octave, the formula is fully stated at a slow tempo in the low register.  After a short, cadenza-like bridge (from 1:07), it repeats once again (at 1:55), transposed to its lowest possible register on the clarinet.


    4. Der pedantische Lehrer (The Pedantic Teacher)
    Michele Marelli (HARLEKIN)
    ...the melody is taken apart...written from the beginning and the end in the air.  
    When she makes a mistake, the Pedantic Teacher becomes angry... 
    She does not stop until she has written everything into the air, without a mistake."

    MOVEMENT: The clarinet "writes" the melodic figures in the air (vertically and horizontally).
    Dynamics are indicated by thrusting the clarinet forward for louder notes.

         Musically, the "teacher" examines and repeats parts of the formula for closer examination.  This section begins with alternating fragments from the beginning and the end of the formula (1st formula note, then last 2 notes, then 1st 3 notes, etc...), separated by rests and fermatas.  After repeating these fragments a few times, fragments from the middle of the formula soon appear.  The fragments grow until the whole formula once again appears.  After a long trill, the clarinet "draws the melody in the air", accompanied by scalar figures and punctuating leg stomps.  Intervals and ornamentation are expanded.  After a theatrical passage where the high register pitches are "wrongly drawn", the section ends with fast scalar repetitions.
    • 2:14 - humorous asides (octaves, tremolo, chromatic glissandi)
    • 3:38 - full formula ending in long circular-breathed trill
    • 4:49 - cadenza with leg stamp punctuation
    • 6:15 - drone followed by "drawing wrong"
    • 7:09 - final scalar loops

    5. Der spitzbübische Joker (The Roguish Joker)
    Marcelo González (see links of HARLEKIN excerpts at bottom)
    "...impudent jokes...dirty little tricks..."

    MOVEMENT: Various physical gestures are employed here for humorous effect, 
    including "reaching" for high notes, cleaning of squeaking, clogged up key holes, etc...

         The formula is expressed over the full range of the clarinet with the widest possible interval leaps, and is also punctuated and mirrored by the performer's body movements.
    • 0:40 - sheepishly trying to get G# correct (in tune) by hitting the clarinet, etc...
    • 3:05 - melancholy, and then in a march dance, ending in a low, "flatulent" flutter-tongue.

    6. Der leidenschaftliche Tänzer (The Passionate Dancer)
    Karel Dohnal (DER KLEINE HARLEKIN)
    "...the Passionate Dancer becomes so infatuated with the dancing that she forgets more and more often to play the notes
    ...and thus her melody becomes full of holes."

    MOVEMENT: The sounds of the dance shoes have their greatest impact in this section.
    The dance "should be a newly discovered personal dance, which includes traditional elements from various sources."

         A variation of the formula is begun as a "country dance", but a "strong wind" soon arises (mimed "walking against the wind" with formula figures in between).  Another slower formula variation with "staggering steps" begins at 0:32.

         This is followed by a "march dance" section where the performer "freezes" during fermatas (1:52).

         Two subsections then follow:
    • 3:17 - Dialog mit einem Fuss (Dialog with a Foot): the clarinet fragments alternate with "feet sounds" as the clarinetist "teaches" the foot, sometimes using multi-phonics (optional section)
    • 5:13 - Harlekins Tanz (Harlequin's Dance): the melody and footsteps are performed synchronously (rhythmic unison) in a "ravishing" dance (sometimes like tap-dancing). It is repeated 6 times (5:40, 6:00, 6:20, 6:42, 7:04, and 7:20), but each time more and more clarinet notes are "skipped" as the footsteps fill in for them.  In the last cycle only 5 notes are actually sounded.

      7. Der exaltierte Kreiselgeist (The Exalted Spinning Spirit)
      Pei-Lun Tsai (DER KLEINE HARLEKIN)
      "HARLEQUIN remembers the small, fast circular figures...a large climbing spiral...  
      Between the fast melodic curves, she throws out wild, long 'bird cries' 12 times, 
      until she has extinguished the entire melody...the 13th is the highest of all."

      MOVEMENT: During this section the HARLEKIN spirals away towards the exit in a mirror of her entrance.
      During the "bird cries" she pauses and spins in place like a top, slowing down.

           The clarinet plays soft, rapid, legato or clipped wide-register arpeggio loops.  The lower range of the arpeggio gradually rises (compressing the pitch range) and eventually becomes the HARLEKIN formula pitch sequence figure (seen in the end of the first section of The Dream Messenger).  The loops continue a mixture of legato and staccato articulations.  Now looping in the high register once again, formula pitches are individually held and then released in wavering fermatas ("bird calls", starting from 2:01) and removed from the loops.  Held rests preceding the release of each "bird call" become longer and longer and the loop segment becomes shorter and shorter.  The piece ends in a final held 13th note. 


      Costume
      Suzanne Stephens (HARLEKIN)
           The original costume (seen on the score cover and above) is designed so that a red band and a green band, both over a yellow background, wind up in a spiral from the feet to the top of the body.  The HARLEKIN is illuminated by a spotlight which follows him/her across the stage.


      DER KLEINE HARLEKIN
      Johanna Stephens-Janning (DER KLEINE HARLEKIN)
           HARLEKIN originally included another character section (probably part of "The Passionate Dancer"), but it was eventually re-designed as a separate piece, to be performed with a different costume (such as seen in most of the images seen on this page, including the one above).  

      "THE LITTLE HARLEQUIN is a roguish, exuberant dance musician and a bubbling performing artist, 
      who could inspire a more versatile kind of musician for the future." 

           Like HARLEKIN, this work starts with a long wavering high note and a spiral-shaped dance towards the front of the stage...  (there are many humorous movement aspects, too many to describe here, but they can be seen from the numerous YouTube videos of this work).
      • 0:14 - entrance with wavering high note
      • 0:33 - formula 1st limb (beginning phrase, played as a "march dance") becomes a repeated falling/rising scale, with the clarinet getting "shortening" pauses in the 1st 4 cycles in order to reach the high C
      • 1:25, 1:46, 2:19, 2:56, 3:29 - formula variations in a "march dance" dialogue with feet, using the clarinet's full range and with many additional scored physical gestures
      • 3:56 - Interlude leading to 10 "rhetorical statements" (fast melodic notes leaping back and forth from a pedal tone, punctuated by formula note fermatas posed as "question or exclamation marks"), each directed towards a different audience member. 
      • 6:39, 7:02 (with trill interlude), 7:49 - formula variations, resuming "march dance" feeling
      • 8:15 - HARLEKIN "basic" formula played in a "ravishing dance" (synchronous footsteps, tap-dancing with frozen postures)
           Interestingly, DER KLEINE HARLEKIN has been used as the basis of presentations of "new music" to small children.  A trailer for a recent production with Merve Kazokoğlu as the HARLEKIN can be found here.  Featured below is a short documentary ("Stockhausen For Children") of clarinetist Marcelo González' presentation of this work to a children's classroom (in Spanish with English subtitles):


      Sound Impressions
           Both HARLEKIN and DER KLEINE HARKLEKIN are wonderfully lyrical tour-de-force works for clarinet, and are very popular solo recital pieces (especially DER KLEINE HARLEKIN).  Surprisingly, for a work from an "avant garde" composer, these pieces are not dominated by typical "extended techniques" such as tongue-slaps, multi-phonics, over-blowing, etc... though these do appear when called for.  Stockhausen has never been interested in writing solo "technique dictionary"-type works, and here instead uses a melodic formula to create "character-based" structural variations.  However, an important "extra" element is of course the sounds created from the various kinds of footsteps.  In fact, the footsteps and pantomime elements of these works are integral to the composition, so it's a bit unfortunate that it is not possible to see them when listening to the CD (the booklet does include a wealth of photographs, and a DVD is available to be ordered).  However, the audio portion of the work is still able to effectively convey the multiple transformations of character in this light-hearted, yet virtuosic and physically demanding work.

      Links
      Sound samples, tracks listings and CD ordering
      Purchase the Scores 
      HARLEKIN & DER KLEINE HARLEKIN DVD (Suzanne Stephens)
      HARLEKIN Wiki
      "Theatrical Elements and their Relationship with Music in Karlheinz Stockhausen's HARLEKIN for Clarinet" (Katarzyna Marczak, PDF thesis)
      HARLEKIN (excerpts, Marcelo González, Youtube clips):
      DER KLEINE HARLEKIN (Johanna Janning, Youtube clip)
      DER KLEINE HARLEKIN (Diego Vásquez, YouTube clip)
      Many other clips of DER KLEINE HARLEKIN exist in YouTube...

      Friday, October 9, 2015

      ENGEL-PROZESSIONEN

      SONNTAG AUS LICHT
      Scene 1
      LICHTER- WASSER

      Scene 2
      ENGEL-PROZESSIONEN

      Scene 3
      LICHT- BILDER

      Scene 4
      DUFTE-ZEICHEN

      Scene 5
      HOCH-ZEITEN


      Farewell
      SONNTAGS-
      ABSCHIED

      (photo: Klaus Rudolph, SONNTAG AUS LICHT 2012 Cologne)
      Nr. 76, ENGEL-PROZESSIONEN (Angel Processions)
      for choir (a cappella)
      (2000) ['40]

      Introduction
           ENGEL-PROZESSIONEN (Angel Processions) is the 2nd Scene of Stockhausen's dramatic music work SONNTAG AUS LICHT (SUNDAY from LIGHT), which was the last-composed "day" of his 7-part, 29-hour opera cycle LICHT (Light).  LICHT is a work of cathedral-like proportions for acoustic and electronic operatic forces, divided into the 7 days of the week (one opera for each day).  This opera cycle revolves around 3 archetype characters, MICHAEL, EVE and LUCIFER, and over the 29 hours each of these characters are introduced, come into conflict, face temptation and finally come into union.  The music is almost entirely based on a "super-formula", which is a 3-layered melodic-thematic representation of the 3 characters.  These formula-themes are together and separately threaded throughout the opera's vocal and instrumental fabric.  Story-wise, actors and narrative can (and often do) change from scene to scene, and the libretto text is sometimes made up of non-traditional grammar (or even purely phonetic sounds).

           SONNTAG (Sunday) is the Day of Mystical Union, specifically between the characters MICHAEL and EVE.  The scenes in SONNTAG do not have an obvious narrative arc connecting them - instead, the actual theme of union between the 2 characters is achieved through musical, visual, spatial and even olfactory means.

           In ENGEL-PROZESSIONEN, the setting is a hall lined with a mixed choir along the rear and side walls (a "Tutti Choir"), singing slow, quiet tones and aleatoric syllables.  Promenading through the audience are 7 singing "Angel Choirs" (choir groups of 4 to 6 singers).  The 7th Angel Choir, the Angels of Joy, also sometimes sings from the balcony.  During the Scene, the 7 Angel Choirs sing in various combinations during 7 sections labelled "Phases" (which are also each subdivided into 7 "Waves").  At the end, each Angel Choir proceeds up the middle of the hall and converges, bringing irises and lilies to form a mountain of flowers.

      The Tutti Choir
           To the left, right, and behind the audience, are choir singers who sing quiet sustained notes from 4 melodic layers derived from the LICHT super-formula.  These layers (the MICHAEL and EVE segments of the Sunday "day fragment" and part of the Tuesday & Wednesday day fragments) were obtained from overlaying the LICHT super-formula over the duration of the opera SONNTAG AUS LICHT (for more on this technique see LICHT-BILDER and DUFTE - ZEICHEN).  In addition to the held tones, the tutti choir also softly repeats (aleatorically) the first syllable of the name of each Day Wave ("Mo", Tue", "Ve", etc...).  In general this background choir is very quiet and can only be perceived as a kind of harmonic "haze" (though the Stockhausen Edition CD includes the Tutti Choir by itself on a separate disc for further appreciation).

      The 7 Angel Choirs
            Each Angel Choir sings in 2 layers (2-part polyphony), with the upper voice derived from the EVE formula and the lower voice derived from the MICHAEL formula.  The distribution of the voices and main language used in the text for each Angel choir is as follows:  

      Angels of: Water Earth Life Music Light Heaven Joy
      Day: Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
      Number: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
      2-part Polyphony: 3T
      3T
      3S
      3S
      3A
      3A
      3S
      3T
      3B
      3B
      3A
      3B
      SA
      TB
      Language: Hindi
      (Indian)
      Chinese Spanish English   Arabic African (Kiswahili) German

           ENGEL-PROZESSIONEN is arranged as 49 sections ("Waves") grouped in 7 "Phases" of 7 Waves each, and one Angel Choir is usually featured in each Wave.  The text of each Wave uses 1 of 7 languages as well (since each Angel Choir sings in a different language).  In addition to their featured sections, the 7th Angel Choir, the Angels of Joy, often sing as accompanying "guest" soloists during the other Angel Choirs' Waves.  The Soprano and Tenor from the Angels of Joy (who also should be the soloists in LICHTER-WASSER) demonstrate special hand gestures for each Day to each of the other Angel Choirs, who imitate them.

           Each time an Angel Choir is featured, it uses a variation of the same text.  In other words, in each Angel Choir's Wave repetition, the text is reorganized/re-phoneticized, the MICHAEL/EVE melodic formula segments are different, and articulation is usually different.  Since the theme of SONNTAG AUS LICHT is "mystical union", the polyphonic EVE and MICHAEL layers of each Angel Choir gradually meld together as the Scene progresses into a homophonic texture at the end.

      Form Structure
      Stockhausen Edition CD 67 Cover.
      www.karlheinzstockhausen.org)
           The structural organization of ENGEL-PROZESSIONEN is shown on the CD cover above.  There are 7 Phases of 7 Waves each.  In each Phase, the order of the Angel Choir Waves is different, but the Angels of Joy are always in the final 7th Wave.  The diagram shows the sequence of Angels for each Phase with the letter in each row standing for the language (I = Indian Hindi, C = Chinese, S = Spanish, etc...).  Below each language letter is a number in a colored diamond, which is only the number assigned to that Angel Choir, and is not related to the row it's in.  As mentioned previously, the members of the Angels of Joy also often sing soloistically with the other Angel Choirs during many Waves (singing in the native language of the featured Angel Choir).  These are indicated in the diagram by the circled letters "So", "Al", "Te", and "Ba" (Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass).  The added soloist(s) are reflective of the characters featured in that Day of LICHT (for example, the 2nd Phase, Tuesday, features guest Tenor and Bass soloists, which reflects the War between MICHAEL and LUCIFER).  In the Waves of the 6th Phase, 1 member of each of the Angel Choirs sings as an additional "soloist".  In the 7th Phase, the Angels of Joy alternate with each of the other 6 Angel Choirs.

      Aleatoric Angels
           During each Phase, an Angel Choir sometimes "continues on" after their featured Wave, singing different varieties of aleatoric textures, such as quietly repeating melodic fragments, slow glissandi,  passages of text on single pitches, etc... (the type of aleatoric texture is usually derived from the Angel Choir's assigned language).  This is indicated in the cover diagram by horizontal dashed lines.  For example, in Phase 1, the first Angel Choir (Water) continues singing isolated "Hindi" syllables after it's featured Wave is over, and continues for the rest of that Phase.  In Phase 2, the Angels of Earth add "Chinese" aleatoric melodies for Waves 2-7, and the Angels of Water join with "Hindi" syllables during Waves 5-7.  Each of these aleatoric textures are very complex and unique, and require close headphone listening to fully be appreciated on the CD recording.  They can be summarized as such:
      • Phase 1: Angel Choir 1 continues with aleatory Hindi pitches for Waves 2 (with Monday gesture)
      • Phase 2: Angel Choir 2 sings Chinese from Wave 2-7 (Tuesday gesture) and Angel Choir 1 adds Hindi from Wave 5-7 (Monday gesture)
      • Phase 3: Angel Choir 3 (Spanish chanting, Wednesday gesture), 2, and 1 overlap (from Waves 2, 4 and 6)
      • Phase 4: Angel Choir 4 (English, Thursday gesture, from Wave 2), 1 (from Wave 3), 2 (from Wave 5), 3 (from Wave 7)
      • Phase 5: All groups sing in various combinations of harmonies with the EVE layer of each Wave
      • Phase 6: From Wave 2, a growing number of Angels join in a constant, breathy Eb drone.
      • Phase 7: No aleatoric layers, all groups harmonize at the end

      Narrative
            One of the most fascinating things about ENGEL-PROZESSIONEN is the way the Angel Choirs move about in space.  The below table may be useful to chart this movement for the stereo version found on Stockhausen Edition CD 67.  The initial placement of a choral voice on the CD is indicated in the "stereo placement" columns, though often times the voice(s) will slowly move left or right during the Wave.

      PHASE 1 (Monday)
      In the beginnings of Waves 3 through 7, a "colored noise" texture appears in the EVE layer, which is later picked up at the end of each Wave by the MICHAEL layer ("tsch" lip-smacking sounds, "kissing noises", tongue-clicks and finger-snaps, etc...).
      In the 1st and 4th Waves the Soprano soloist (representing EVE, since Monday is EVE's Day) is very coloratura (almost hysterical).
      The Alto announces "SONNTAG AUS LICHT" just before Wave 2 begins. 
      Wave Angel
      Choir
      Trk Dur.
      Stereo Placement of
      Angel Choir and Soloist (SATB)
        - - - LEFT - - - - CENTER - - - - RIGHT - - -

      Aleatory Layers
      (In addition to Tutti Choir)
      1 Water 
      (Hindi)
      1 0:58


      S
      3T
      3T







      2 Earth
      (Chinese)
      2 0:45





      3S
      3S


      Angels of Water (Tenors) begin Hindi long held syllables
      3 Life
      (Spanish)
      3 0:44



      3A
      3A




      4 Music
      (English)
      4 0:54
      3S
      3T
      S





      5 Light
      (Arabic)
      5 0:51






      3B
      3B
      <-

      6 Heaven
      (Kiswahili)
      6 0:46

      3A
      3B
      <-






      7 Joy
      (German)
      7 0:56

      B
      T
      A S



      PHASE 2 (Tuesday)
      In Waves 1 through 6, the EVE layer uses tremelo on most syllables, while the MICHAEL layers are generally simpler.  Additionally in Wave 3, both layers soon harmonize in 4 sections of consonant/vowel textures.  
      Waves 5 and 6 end on colored noises.  The Tenor and Bass are very boisterous in the 1st Wave, since Tuesday is the Day of War between MICHAEL and LUCIFER.
      Wave Angel
      Choir
      Trk Dur.
      Placement
      Aleatory Layers
      1 Earth
      (Chinese)
      8 0:31


      B T
      3S
      3S






      2 Music
      (English)
      9 0:33
      3S
      3T
      ->


      T
      (brief)




      Angels of Earth (Sopranos) begin Chinese fragments w bends
      3 Heaven
      (Kiswahili)
      10 1:43
      3A
      3B
      <->







      4 Water 
      (Hindi)
      11 0:38




      3T
      3T



      5 Life
      (Spanish)
      12 0:42



      3A
      3A




      Water Tenors cont.  Hindi short syllables
      6 Light
      (Arabic)
      13 0:42
      3B
      3B
      <-




      7 Joy
      (German)
      14 0:40
      T
      B
      A S




      PHASE 3 (Wednesday)
      In this Phase, the Bass, Tenor and Alto members of the Angels of Joy are emphasized in each Wave (singing in rhythmic harmony but often in polyphony), while the featured Angel Choir of each Wave sings slower supportive tones.  This special trio reflects the cooperation between MICHAEL, EVE and LUCIFER in Wednesday from LIGHT.
      The Phase ends with rising tutti kisses.
      Wave Angel
      Choir
      Trk Dur.
      Placement
      Aleatory Layers
      1 Life
      (Spanish)
      15 0:24
      BTA 3A
      3A









      2 Heaven
      (Kiswahili)
      16 0:23
      BTA 3A
      3B





      Angels of Life (Altos) begin Spanish chanting on single pitches
      3 Earth
      (Chinese)
      17 0:23
      BTA
      3S
      3S





      4 Light
      (Arabic)
      18 0:20
      3B
      3B
      ATB
      ->




      Earth Sopranos cont. Chinese fragments w bends
      5 Water 
      (Hindi)
      19 0:24

      ATB
      ->
      3T
      3T


      6 Music
      (English)
      20 0:39

      ATB
      <-
      3S
      3T

      Water Tenors sing Hindi chords
      7 Joy
      (German)
      21 0:40
      SA
      TB


      3S
      3T




      PHASE 4 (Thursday)
      In this Phase, the top EVE layer in each Wave generally concentrates on "colored" or consonant noises 
      (notably, whistling in Wave 3), while the MICHAEL layer is more melodic.  The additional soloist is a Tenor, since Thursday is MICHAEL's Day.
      Waves 3 and 4 end with Bass and Soprano chants (with total pauses by all other vocals).
      Wave 5 ends in a dialogue between the 2 layers and a pause in most background layers.
      Wave 7 ends in a harmony phrase.
      Wave Angel
      Choir
      Trk Dur.
      Placement
      Aleatory Layers
      1 Music
      (English)
      22 0:51
      T

      3S
      3T








      2 Water 
      (Hindi)
      23 0:36

      T



      3T
      3T

      Angels of Music (Sopranos and Tenors) begin English syllables as chords connected by glissandi

      3 Light
      (Arabic)
      24 1:12

      3B
      3B






      Water Tenors sing Hindi parallel layers of chanting

      4 Earth
      (Chinese)
      25 1:08



      3S
      3S




      5 Heaven
      (Kiswahili)
      26 1:06



      3A
      3B




      Earth Sopranos sing Chinese slow falling gliss with isolated syllables
      6 Life
      (Spanish)
      27 0:44

      3A
      3A






      7 Joy
      (German)
      28 1:12





      BT AS
      Angels of Life (Altos) begin Spanish (held overtone chord)
      PHASE 5 (Friday)
      In each Wave of this Phase, the MICHAEL layer is in harmony with the EVE layer
      but more ornamented (rhythmically subdivided).  Each Wave usually ends in a fully harmonized figure.
      Wave 4 features a delayed Kiswahili Bass solo in the second half after a wavering, clicking texture.  As the Friday Phase (Day of Temptation between EVE and LUCIFER), this section features a passionate Bass and Soprano dialogue in Waves 4 through 6.
      Wave Angel
      Choir
      Trk Dur.
      Placement
      Aleatory Layers
      1 Light
      (Arabic)
      29 0:33


      3B
      3B


      (S) (B)
      All Angel Choirs are in various harmony combinations (not aleatory) with a featured Angel Choir's EVE layer, often adding beat accents or syncopation.  















      2 Life
      (Spanish)
      30 0:28
      3A
      3A




      (S) (B)
      3 Water 
      (Hindi)
      31 0:33



      3T
      3T
      (B)

      (S)

      4 Heaven
      (Kiswahili)
      32 1:41

      (B)
      3A
      3B

      (S)

      Bass solo
      (at 0:44)


      B


      (S)

      5 Music
      (English)
      33 1:06

      B

      3S
      3T
      S

      6 Earth
      (Chinese)
      34 1:06
      3S
      3S
      (B)
      ->



      S (B)
      7 Joy
      (German)
      35 0:50





      SA
      TB

      PHASE 6 (Saturday)
      In this Phase, the EVE and MICHAEL layers begin to harmonize more than ever. 
      In Waves 1-6, 1 member of each Angel Choir becomes a "soloist", creating a 3-part harmony.
      The rhythms are much slower than before and the aleatory elements are replaced by a growing drone on Eb.  This is the Saturday Phase, which normally should feature LUCIFER as a soloist, but here he is represented by groups of unison Bass vocalists instead.
      Wave Angel
      Choir
      Trk Dur.
      Placement
      Aleatory Layers
      1 Heaven
      (Kiswahili)
      36 0:36


      B
      3A
      2B






      2 Light
      (Arabic)
      37 0:39

      (3B)
      B
      3B
      2B
      ->




      From Wave 2, a growing number of Angels gradually join in a building, breathy Eb drone.















      3 Music
      (English)
      38 0:40

      (9B)

      S
      2S
      3T
      ->


      4 Life
      (Spanish)
      39 0:39
      (9B) A
      3A
      2A
      <-

      (3T)

      5 Earth
      (Chinese)
      40 0:37

      S
      3S
      2S
      ->






      6 Water 
      (Hindi)
      41 0:40



      T
      3T
      2T




      7 Joy
      (German)
      42 0:37


      BTAS


      PHASE 7 (Sunday)
      The EVE and MICHAEL layers are in similar rhythms, sometimes more rhythmically subdivided.
      The Angels of Joy sing an "announcement" Wave (in German) before each Angel Choir's Wave.
      The Phase ends on an almost total harmony, as befits the day of "Mystic Union".
      Wave Angel
      Choir
      Trk Dur.
      Placement
      Aleatory Layers
      1a Joy
      (German)
      43 0:26


      BTAS


      (Tutti Choir lining the walls only)
































      1b Heaven
      (Kiswahili)
      44 0:26

      3A
      3B
      ->





      2a Joy
      (German)
      45 0:25


      BTAS


      2b Light
      (Arabic)
      46 0:25




      3B
      3B
      ->


      3a Joy
      (German)
      47 0:25


      BTAS


      3b Music
      (English)
      48 0:29





      3S
      3T
      <-

      4a Joy
      (German)
      49 0:30


      BTAS


      4b Life
      (Spanish)
      50 0:27
      3A
      3A






      a5 Joy
      (German)
      51 0:32


      BTAS


      5b Earth
      (Chinese)
      52 0:32

      3S
      3S





      6a Joy
      (German)
      53 0:29


      BTAS


      6b Water 
      (Hindi)
      54 0:31



      3T
      3T




      7a Joy
      (German)
      55 0:35


      BTAS


      7b Joy
      (German)
      56 0:34


      BTAS



      Sunday
      from
      Light
      57 2:10
      homophonic tutti
      (sometimes briefly polyphonic)


      Staging
           Each Angel Choir wears a different colored costume to indicate their specific Day.  During ENGEL-PROZESSIONEN, the Soprano and Tenor from the Angels of Joy impart day-specific hand gestures (sometimes from the balcony) at the beginning of each Wave to the Angel Choirs and Tutti Choir, who imitate them.  When an Angel Choir is singing an aleatory part, it gets a separate Day hand gesture and makes special additional movements (steps, spins, etc...). 

      Sound Impressions 
            ENGEL-PROZESSIONEN beautifully continues the theme of "mystical union" begun in LICHTER-WASSER (the 1st Scene of SONNTAG AUS LICHT) as the 2 melodies slowly, teasingly come together over 49 formula-based Wave "moments".  The Angel Choirs effectively portray this gradual blending in 7 different languages which adds a colorful variety to the kinds of blendings.  What begins as a sometimes jarring polyphony in the 1st Wave eventually becomes a beautiful homophony by the end of the Scene.

           The spatial movement is very unique in that the actual sources of the sound (the choirs) can be seen and heard to be moving around the hall, throughout the audience.  In LICHTER-WASSER, the melodies moved around without apparent movement by being passed from instrument to instrument, but in this Scene, they are visibly moving (though much slower).  Like the 4th Bridge of LICHTER-WASSER, a "3rd dimension" is added when the Angels of Joy sometimes sing from the balcony. Additionally each of the 7 Phases has its own "process" through which 7 Waves are navigated.  The 7 Phases essentially make 1 large "procession" from duality to unity.

      Links
      Sound samples, online CD ordering
      Ordering the Scores
      Wiki Entry
      2011 Musikfabric/Oper Köln SONNTAG Production
      Klaus Rudolf Photos
      2011 SONNTAG AUS LICHT Production Dance Company Page
      SONNTAG AUS LICHT 2011 Review (Deutche Welle) 
      Suzanne Stephens' Advent 2002 Report on the Premiere Performance (with photos)
      Al Moritz' Impressions from the premiere 
      Audio clip of the premiere broadcast on radio (YouTube clip)
      Moritz Review